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LESSONS:

Three Integrated Urban Infrastructure Development Projects: Secondary Cities Urban Development (Sector) Project, Botabek Urban Development Project, and Bandar Lampung Urban Development Project (Loans 983/984[SF]/1077/1078-INO)

sector: Water and Other Urban Infrastructure and Services | country: Indonesia

Demand-side management should constitute a more important part of future integrated urban infrastructure development projects (IUIDPs), especially for solid waste and sanitation components. First, waste generation may be reduced through encouragement for recycling and provision of proper incentives for in-site waste removal. Next, offering these services free of charge could generate demand for desludging services of human waste. The treated sludge as compost may be sold to farmers to allow operation and maintenance of solid waste management in a sustainable manner. Large-scale kampung improvement program may be implemented under future IUIDPs where sufficient institutional capacity exists. This can include bus terminals, markets, and possibly urban housing improvements, contributing to effectively achieving urban renewal.

Integrated urban infrastructure development projects (IUIDPs) should envisage vertical integration of water-related project components (such as water supply, drainage, and sanitation) and incorporate social and environmental concerns explicitly. Future IUIDPs and water supply and sanitation projects should take a river basin-oriented approach to balance water quantity and quality. Potable water for drinking purposes should be distributed as bottled water, using public-private partnerships.

Integrated urban infrastructure development projects (IUIDPs) should pursue further integration of project components involving the introduction of social sector components, such as community-based health care and environmental education. Involving the private sector and encouraging community participation should be actively pursued in future IUIDPs as both contribute to improving accountability in the delivery of services.

Success in integrated urban infrastructure development projects (IUIDPs) largely depends on how well the implementation arrangements facilitate community participation for a sense of ownership and proper operation and maintenance. Strong local participation and ownership can alleviate the adverse impact of an economic crisis on IUIDPs. Kampung improvement program and market infrastructure improvement program are successful models for improving urban living conditions through community participation, which is also the most effective way to ensure effective monitoring and evaluation and good service delivery.

The integrated approach for urban infrastructure development allows objective-oriented modifications of project design and components, which is very effective for improving the urban living environment. Integrated urban infrastructure development projects are most appropriate for project cities in the population range of 100,000-500,000. For smaller cities, without strong urban dynamics, the sector lending approach could be applied, focusing on individual sectors. For larger cities and urban areas influenced by a megacity, standalone projects would be appropriate to affect urbanization patterns and have a measurable impact on urban living conditions.

Water of potable quality need not be distributed through a piped water supply. Potable water from water treatment plants, as well as smaller quantities from shallow groundwater is better delivered when distributed in bottles, through public-private sector participation. Most tropical areas of developing member countries are endowed with sufficient annual rainfall for shallow groundwater to be the most accessible and sustainable source. The fundamental problem is the pollution of this groundwater, due to inadequate sanitation practices. This problem cannot be overcome by extending piped water supply alone, which requires greater investment.

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