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LESSONS:

Viet Nam: Vocational and Technical Education Project

sector: Education | country: Viet Nam, Socialist Republic of

1. Management of vocational and technical education requires extensive coordination among different stakeholders. For the project, there was little collaboration and sharing of lessons among donors. There were also overlapping responsibilities for technical and professional education between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Ministry of Education and Training. [Executive Summary, page iv; Main text, para. 86]

2. Outcomes need to be integrated with the national system for them to be effectively utilized and sustained. The General Department of Vocational Training adopted the new curriculum development method and implemented it nationwide. In contrast, the labor market information system, production units at key schools, and school industry partnership have become rather inactive as sustaining these outputs requires a lot of resources. [Executive Summary, page iv; Main text, para. 87]

3. Strong management capacity should be a prerequisite to project implementation. The General Department of Vocational Training (GDVT) lacked experience and capacity to effectively implement the project. The GDVT is overwhelmed with an increasing number of vocational institutions, which may explain the delay in implementing the program accreditation system and technical certification system nationwide. [Executive Summary, page iv; Main text, para. 86]

4. Establishing a market-driven vocational and technical education (VTE) system is a long process and requires macro-level links with industry. Public vocational institutions are still financially and strategically dependent on the government. School industry relations remain adhoc. Many of the VTE graduates obtained jobs that were not in the same field as the training they received. The percentage of nonmatching jobs ranges from 10% to 45% across years and degrees. [Executive Summary, page iv; Main text, para. 88]

5. The quality of vocational and technical education (VTE) can be improved with more and broader participation of students. University degrees are still preferred over VTE. Many students who enter vocational institutions are low-performing and unmotivated. At the same time, access to vocational education can be more equitable. The system attracts relatively few disadvantaged students such as women, ethnic minorities, and the poor. [Executive Summary, page iv; Main text, para. 89]

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